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This web site was created to to promote the knowledge of Bornean frogs and toads and to present some results of the authors' joint research projects.

We strive for presenting to the user high-quality images for identification of both Bornean frogs and their larval forms. We provide some basic biological information and help you to access additional knowledge. 

The starting years of the project were funded by Volkswagen Foundation Germany. Please see Sponsors section for acknowledgements.

Images and Copyrights

Understand and respect copyrights! Click on the Creative Commons icon in the footer before you intend to make use of images or information from this web site. Please also read  >Photos


In 2021, Alexander and Indraneil conceptualized the "Tadpoles of East Malaysia" project. After two years of exploring potential study sites and talking to authorities, we succeeded in getting funded for this biodiversity project by the Volkswagen Foundation. That was the start for many years of research on Borneo.

The basic idea was to build an inventory of all Bornean tadpoles. In particular, we wanted to generate color images of all possible species and their larval form for rapid identification. In many cases we performed tadpole matching by genetic barcoding (16S gene) for correct species assignment of larvae. The work resulted in the publication of a Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo (2022). The project has not come to completion yet. Tadpoles of some species still remain unknown (or misidentified) and new species continue to emerge. 


We thank the following sponsors and institutions that have contributed and helped in one way or the other:

Volkswagen Foundation Germany, Swiss Academy of Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), IBEC (Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation), University Malaysia Sabah: ITBC, Universität Hamburg, Naturhistorisches Museum Bern, Economic Planning Unit, Sabah Parks, Forest Department of Sarawak, National Parks Staff, Zweibrüder Optoelectronics, Gesellschaft der Freunde und Förderer des Zoologischen Museums Hamburg

We gratefully acknowledge the granting of permission to cross-link:

Amphibian Species of the World by Dr. Darrel Frost, American Museum of Natural History for taxonomic information about species.

AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California. 

We wish to thank all colleagues, students, friends, and other individuals who have provided information, images, or have helped us in the field and in the lab over the years!